The Laos IPR legal framework is still in the early stages of development. With guiding decrees on the implementation and interpretation of the IP Law yet to be passed, protection and enforcement of IPR in Laos is still relatively weak. However, the law offers a fairly efficient system for registration of most major IPRs. IPRs in Laos are governed by the Law on Intellectual Property No. 01/NA of 20 December 2011 (“IP Law”), effective from 2012, protecting copyright and related rights, patents, petty patents, industrial designs, trade marks, trade names, layout designs of integrated circuits, geographical indications, trade secrets and plant varieties based on the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) model law and the requirements of the Trade Related Aspects of International Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement. Major IPR treaties signed by Laos include the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and the Convention Establishing WIPO. Laos also became party to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works as well as the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks from 7 March 2016, enabling businesses to enjoy international trademark registration.